Enquist Lab Publications


Harris GM, Madigan NN, Lancaster KZ, Enquist LW, Windebank AJ, Schwartz J, Schwarzbauer JE. Nerve Guidance by a Decellularized Fibroblast Extracellular Matrix. Matrix Biol. 2017 Jul;60-61:176-189. Epub 2016 Sep 15. PMCID: PMC5352540

Pomeranz LE, Ekstrand MI, Latcha KN, Smith GA, Enquist LW, Friedman JM. Gene expression profiling with Cre-conditional pseudorabies virus reveals a subset of midbrain neurons that participate in reward circuitry. J Neurosci. 2017 Apr 12;37(15):4128-4144. Epub 2017 Mar 10. PMCID: PMC5391685


Enquist LW, Leib DA. Intrinsic and innate defenses of neurons: Détente with the herpesviruses. J Virol. 2016 Dec 16;91(1). pii: e01200-16. Review. PMCID: PMC5165195

Scherer J, Yaffe ZA, Vershinin M, Enquist LW. Dual-color Herpesvirus Capsids Discriminate Inoculum from Progeny and Reveal Axonal Transport Dynamics. J Virol. 2016 Aug 31. pii: JVI.01122-16. [Epub ahead of print] PMCID: PMC5068546

Hogue IB, Scherer J, Enquist LW. Exocytosis of Alphaherpesvirus Virions, Light Particles, and Glycoproteins Uses Constitutive Secretory Mechanisms. MBio. 2016 Jun 7;7(3). pii: e00820-16. PMCID: PMC4959669

Christensen MH, Jensen SB, Miettinen JJ, Luecke S, Prabakaran T, Reinert LS, Mettenleiter T, Chen ZJ, Knipe DM, Sandri-Goldin RM, Enquist LW, Hartmann R, Mogensen TH, Rice SA, Nyman TA, Matikainen S, Paludan SR. HSV-1 ICP27 targets the TBK1-activated STING signalsome to inhibit virus-induced type I IFN expression. EMBO J. 2016 Jul 1;35(13):1385-99. Epub 2016 May 27. PMCID: PMC4931188

Rosario W, Singh I, Wautlet A, Patterson C, Flak J, Becker TC, Ali A, Tamarina N, Philipson LH, Enquist LW, Myers MG Jr, Rhodes CJ. The Brain to Pancreatic Islet Neuronal Map Reveals Differential Glucose Regulation from Distinct Hypothalamic Regions. Diabetes. 2016 Sep;65(9):2711-23. Epub 2016 Apr 12. PMCID: PMC5001176

Johnson BN, Lancaster KZ, Hogue IB, Meng F, Kong YL, Enquist LW, McAlpine MC. 3D printed nervous system on a chip. Lab Chip. 2016 Apr 12;16(8):1393-400. PMCID: PMC4829438

Bosse JB, Enquist LW. The diffusive way out: Herpesviruses remodel the host nucleus, enabling capsids to access the inner nuclear membrane. Nucleus. 2016 Mar;7(1):13-9. Epub 2016 Feb 18. PMCID: PMC4916875

Song R, Koyuncu OO, Greco TM, Diner BA, Cristea IM, Enquist LW. Two Modes of the Axonal Interferon Response Limit Alphaherpesvirus Neuroinvasion. MBio. 2016 Feb 2;7(1). pii: e02145-15. PMCID: PMC4742712


Hagen C, Dent KC, Zeev-Ben-Mordehai T, Grange M, Bosse JB, Whittle C, Klupp BG, Siebert CA, Vasishtan D, Bäuerlein FJ, Cheleski J, Werner S, Guttmann P, Rehbein S, Henzler K, Demmerle J, Adler B, Koszinowski U, Schermelleh L, Schneider G, Enquist LW, Plitzko JM, Mettenleiter TC, Grünewald K. Structural Basis of Vesicle Formation at the Inner Nuclear Membrane. Cell. 2015 Dec 17;163(7):1692-701. PMCID: PMC4701712

Hogue IB, Bosse JB, Engel EA, Scherer J, Hu JR, del Rio T, Enquist LW. Fluorescent Protein Approaches in Alpha Herpesvirus Research. Viruses. 2015 Nov 19;7(11):5933-61. PMCID: PMC4664988

Bosse JB, Tanneti NS, Hogue IB, Enquist LW. Open LED Illuminator: A Simple and Inexpensive LED Illuminator for Fast Multicolor Particle Tracking in Neurons. PLoS One. 2015 Nov 23;10(11):e0143547. PMCID: PMC4658086

Carpenter JE, Clayton AC, Halling KC, Bonthius DJ, Buckingham EM, Jackson W, Dotzler SM, Card JP, Enquist LW, Grose C. Defensive perimeter in the central nervous system: predominance of infected astrocytes and astrogliosis during recovery from varicella-zoster virus encephalitis. J Virol. 2015 Oct 21;90(1):379-91. PMCID: PMC4702565

Bosse JB, Hogue IB, Feric M, Thiberge SY, Sodeik B, Brangwynne CP, Enquist LW. Remodeling nuclear architecture allows efficient transport of herpesvirus capsids by diffusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Oct 20;112(42):E5725-33. Epub 2015 Oct 5. PMCID: PMC4620878

Enquist LW. The big ASM tent: how to represent the microbial sciences? MBio. 2015 Oct 13;6(5). pii: e01573-15. PMCID: PMC4620473

Johnson BN, Lancaster KZ, Zhen G, He J, Gupta MK, Kong YL, Engel EA, Krick KD, Ju A, Meng F, Enquist LW, Jia X, McAlpine MC. 3D Printed Anatomical Nerve Regeneration Pathways. Adv Funct Mater. 2015 Oct 21;25(39):6205-6217. Epub 2015 Sep 18. PMCID: PMC4765385

Wojaczynski GJ, Engel EA, Steren KE, Enquist LW, Patrick Card J. The neuroinvasive profiles of H129 (herpes simplex virus type 1) recombinants with putative anterograde-only transneuronal spread properties. Brain Struct Funct. 2015 May;220(3):1395-1420. Epub 2014 Mar 2. PMCID: PMC4152387

Ambrosini AE, Enquist LW. 2015. Cell-fusion events induced by α-herpesviruses. Future Virology. Vol. 10, No. 2, pages 185-200.

Kratchmarov R, Enquist LW, Taylor MP. Us9-Independent Axonal sorting and transport of the pseudorabies virus glycoprotein gM. J Virol. 2015 Jun 15;89(12):6511-6514. Epub 2015 Apr 1. PMCID: PMC4474295

Parsons LR, Tafuri YR, Shreve JT, Bowen CD, Shipley MM, Enquist LW, Szpara ML. Rapid genome assembly and comparison decode intrastrain variation in human alphaherpesviruses. MBio. 2015 Mar 31;6(2). pii: e02213-14. PMCID: PMC4453532

Koyuncu OO, Song R, Greco TM, Cristea IM, Enquist LW. The number of alphaherpesvirus particles infecting axons and the axonal protein repertoire determines the outcome of neuronal infection. MBio. 2015 Mar 24;6(2). pii: e00276-15. PMCID: PMC4453538

Engel EA, Song R, Koyuncu OO, Enquist LW. Investigating the biology of alpha herpesviruses with mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Proteomics. 2015 Jun;15(12):1943-56. Epub 2015 May 15. PMCID: PMC4482226

Taylor MP, Enquist LW. Axonal spread of neuroinvasive viral infections. Trends Microbiol. 2015 May;23(5):283-8. Epub 2015 Jan 29. PMCID: PMC4417403


Hogue IB, Bosse JB, Hu J-R, Thiberge SY, Enquist LW. Cellular mechanisms of alpha herpesvirus egress: live cell fluorescence microscopy of pseudorabies virus exocytosis. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Dec 4;10(12). PMCID: PMC4256261

Szpara ML, Tafuri YR, Parsons L, Shreve JT, Engel EA, Enquist LW. Genome Sequence of the Anterograde-Spread-Defective Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Strain MacIntyre. Genome Announc. 2014 Nov 13;2(6). pii: e01161-14. PMCID: PMC4241663

Wu BW, Engel EA, Enquist LW. Characterization of a replication-incompetent pseudorabies virus mutant lacking the sole immediate early gene IE180. MBio. 2014 Nov 11;5(6). PMCID: PMC4235210

Bosse JB, Virding S, Thiberge SY, Scherer J, Wodrich H, Ruzsics Z, Koszinowski UH, Enquist LW. Nuclear herpesvirus capsid motility is not dependent on F-actin. MBio. 2014 Oct 7;5(5). pii: e01909-14. PMCID: PMC4196236

Oyibo HK, Znamenskiy P, Oviedo HV, Enquist LW, Zador AM. Long-term Cre-mediated retrograde tagging of neurons using a novel recombinant pseudorabies virus. Front. Neuroanat. 2014 Sep 3;8:86. PMCID: PMC4153299

Card JP, Enquist LW. Transneuronal circuit analysis with pseudorabies viruses. Curr Protoc Neurosci. 2014 Jul 1;68:1.5.1-39. PMCID: PMC4165084

Szpara ML, Gatherer D, Ochoa A, Greenbaum B, Dolan A, Bowden RJ, Enquist LW, Legendre M, Davison AJ. Evolution and diversity in human herpes simplex virus genomes. J Virol. 2014 Jan;88(2):1209-27. Epub 2013 Nov 13. PMCID: PMC3911644


Granstedt AE, Bosse JB, Thiberge SY, Enquist LW. In vivo imaging of alphaherpesvirus infection reveals sychronized activity dependent on axonal sorting of virual proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Sep 10;110(37):E3516-25. Epub 2013 Aug 26. PMCID: PMC3773797

Taylor MP, Kratchmarov R, Enquist LW. Live cell imaging of alphaherpes virus anterograde transport and spread. J Vis Exp. 2013 Aug 16;(78). PMCID: PMC3852683

Sun XR, Badura A, Pacheco DA, Lynch LA, Schneider ER, Taylor MP, Hogue IB, Enquist LW, Murthy M, Wang SS. Fast GCaMPs for improved tracking of neuronal activity. Nat Commun. 2013 Jul 17;4:2170. PMCID: PMC3824390

Kratchmarov R, Kramer T, Greco TM, Taylor MP, Ch'ng TH, Cristea IM, >Enquist LW. Glycoproteins gE and gI are required for efficient KIF1A-dependent anterograde axonal transport of alphaherpesvirus particles in neurons. J Virol. 2013 Sep;87(17):9431-40. Epub 2013 Jun 26. PMCID: PMC3754139

Granstedt AE, Brunton BW, Enquist LW. Imaging the transport dynamics of single alphaherpesvirus particles in intact peripheral nervous system explants from infected mice. MBio. 2013 Jun 4;4(3) :e00358-13. PMCID: PMC3685211

Koyuncu OO, Hogue IB, Enquist LW. Virus infections in the nervous system. Cell Host Microbe. 2013 April 17; 13(4):379-93. PMCID: PMC3647473

Kratchmarov R, Taylor MP, Enquist LW. Role of Us9 phosphorylation in axonal sorting and anterograde transport of pseudorabies virus. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e58776. Epub 2013 Mar 19. PMCID: PMC3602541

Kramer T, Enquist LW. Directional spread of alphaherpesviruses in the nervous system. Viruses. 2013 Feb 11;5(2):678-707. PMCID: PMC3640521

Koyuncu OO, Perlman DH, Enquist LW. Efficient retrograde transport of pseudorabies virus within neurons requires local protein synthesis in axons. Cell Host Microbe. 2013 Jan 16;13(1):54-66. Epub 2013 Jan 16. PMCID: PMC3552305


Kramer T, Greco TM, Taylor MP, Ambrosini AE, Cristea IM, Enquist LW. Kinesin-3 mediates axonal sorting and directional transport of alphaherpesvirus particles in neurons. Cell Host Microbe. 2012 Dec 13;12(6):806-14. PMCID: PMC3527838

Taylor MP, Kobiler O, Enquist LW. Alphaherpesvirus axon-to-cell spread involves limited virion transmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Oct 16;109(42):17046-51. Epub 2012 Oct 1. PMCID: PMC3479527

Card JP, Enquist LW. Use and Visualization of Neuroanatomical Viral Transneuronal Tracers. In: Badoer E, editor. Visualization Techniques: From Immunohistochemistry to Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2012. p. 225-68.

Kratchmarov R, Taylor MP, Enquist LW. Making the case: Married versus Separate models of alphaherpes virus anterograde transport in axons. Rev Med Virol. 2012 Nov;22(6):378-91. Epub 2012 Jul 16. PMCID: PMC3485426

Enquist LW. Ten Years under the JVI Flag. J Virol. 2012 Jul;86(13):7025-6. Epub 2012 May 30.

Kramer T, Enquist LW. Alphaherpesvirus infection disrupts mitochondrial transport in neurons. Cell Host Microbe. 2012 May 17;11(5):504-14. PMCID: PMC3358700

Taylor MP, Kramer T, Lyman MG, Kratchmarov R, Enquist LW. Visualization of an Alphaherpesvirus Membrane Protein That Is Essential for Anterograde Axonal Spread of Infection in Neurons. MBio. 2012 May 2;3(2). pii: e00063-12. PMCID: PMC3315705

Enquist LW. Five questions about viral trafficking in neurons. PLoS Pathog. 2012 Feb;8(2):e1002472. Epub 2012 Feb 16. PMCID: PMC3280975

Berns KI, Casadevall A, Cohen ML, Ehrlich SA, Enquist LW, Fitch JP, Franz DR, Fraser-Liggett CM, Grant CM, Imperiale MJ, Kanabrocki J, Keim PS, Lemon SM, Levy SB, Lumpkin JR, Miller JF, Murch R, Nance ME, Osterholm MT, Relman DA, Roth JA, Vidaver AK. Policy: Adaptations of avian flu virus are a cause for concern. Nature. 2012 Jan 31;482(7384):153-4.

Berns KI, Casadevall A, Cohen ML, Ehrlich SA, Enquist LW, Fitch JP, Franz DR, Fraser-Liggett CM, Grant CM, Imperiale MJ, Kanabrocki J, Keim PS, Lemon SM, Levy SB, Lumpkin JR, Miller JF, Murch R, Nance ME, Osterholm MT, Relman DA, Roth JA, Vidaver AK. Public health and biosecurity. Adaptations of avian flu virus are a cause for concern. Science. 2012 Feb 10;335(6069):660-1. Epub 2012 Jan 31.

Enquist LW. Select agent publications and the H5N1 influenza virus controversy: a Journal of Virology Perspective. J Virol. 2012 Apr;86(7):3410. Epub 2012 Jan 26. PMCID: PMC3302535


Kobiler O, Brodersen P, Taylor MP, Ludmir EB, Enquist LW. Herpesvirus replication compartments originate with single incoming viral genomes. MBio. 2011 Dec 20;2(6). pii: e00278-11. PMCID: PMC3269065

Szpara ML, Tafuri YR, Parsons L, Shamim SR, Legendre M, Verstrepen KJ, Enquist LW. A wide extent of inter-strain diversity in virulent and vaccine strains of alphaherpesviruses. PLoS Pathog. 2011 Oct;7(10):e1002282. Epub 2011 Oct 13. PMCID: PMC3192842

Szpara ML, Tafuri YR, Enquist LW. Preparation of viral DNA from nucleocapsids. J Vis Exp. 2011 Aug 16;(54):3151. PMCID: PMC3217642

Card JP, Kobiler O, Ludmir EB, Desai V, Sved AF, Enquist LW. A dual infection pseudorabies virus conditional reporter approach to identify projections to collateralized neurons in complex neural circuits. PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e21141. Epub 2011 Jun 16. PMCID: PMC3116869

Haugo AC, Szpara ML, Parsons L, Enquist LW, Roller RJ. Herpes simplex virus type 1 pUL34 plays a critical role in cell-to-cell spread of virus in addition to its role in virus replication. J Virol. 2011 Jul;85(14):7203-15. Epub 2011 May 11. PMCID: PMC3126596

Kramer T, Greco TM, Enquist LW, Cristea IM. Proteomic characterization of pseudorabies virus extracellular virions. J Virol. 2011 Jul;85(13):6427-41. Epub 2011 Apr 27. PMCID: PMC3126529

Taylor MP, Koyuncu OO, Enquist LW. Subversion of the actin cytoskeleton during viral infection. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011 Jun;9(6):427-39. Epub 2011 Apr 27. PMCID: PMC3229036

Imperiale MJ, Enquist LW. What's in a Name? J Virol. 2011 Jun;85(11):5245. Epub 2011 Mar 30. PMCID: PMC3094982

Card JP, Kobiler O, McCambridge J, Ebdlahad S, Shan Z, Raizada MK, Sved AF, Enquist LW. Microdissection of neural networks by conditional reporter expression from a Brainbow herpesvirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Feb 22;108(8):3377-82. Epub 2011 Feb 3. PMCID: PMC3044368


Kobiler O, Lipman Y, Therkelsen K, Daubechies I, Enquist LW. Herpesviruses carrying a Brainbow cassette reveal replication and expression of limited numbers of incoming genomes. Nat Commun. 2010 Dec;1(9):146. PMCID: PMC3079281

Szpara ML, Kobiler O, Enquist LW. A common neuronal response to alphaherpesvirus infection. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2010 Sep;5(3):418-27. Epub 2010 Apr 17. PMCID: PMC2990883

Szpara ML, Parson L, Enquist LW. Sequence variability in clinical and laboratory isolates of herpes simplex virus 1 reveals new mutations. J Virol. 2010 May;84(10):5303-13. Epub 2010 Mar 10. PMCID: PMC2863834

Granstedt AE, Kuhn B, Wang SS, Enquist LW. Calcium imaging of neuronal circuits in vivo using a circuit-tracing pseudorabies virus. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2010 Apr;2010(4):pdb.prot5410. PMCID: PMC3017426


Curanovic D, Enquist L. Directional transneuronal spread of alpha-herpesvirus infection. Future Virol. 2009 Nov 1;4(6):591. PMCID: PMC2819188

McCarthy KM, Tank DW, Enquist LW. Pseudorabies virus infection alters neuronal activity and connectivity in vitro. PLoS Pathog. 2009 Oct;5(10):e1000640. Epub 2009 Oct 30. PMCID: PMC2763221

Granstedt AE, Szpara ML, Kuhn B, Wang SS-H, Enquist LW. Fluorescence-based monitoring of in vivo neural activity using a circuit-tracing pseudorabies virus. PLoS One, 4(9):e6923, 2009. PMCID: PMC2735035

Ludmir EB, Enquist LW. Viral genomes are part of the phylogenetic tree of life. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009 Aug;7(8):615.

Curanovic D, Enquist LW. Virion-incorporated glycoprotein B mediates transneuronal spread of pseudorabies virus. J Virol. 2009 Aug;83(16):7796-804. Epub 2009 Jun 3. PMCID: PMC2715761

Curanovic D, Ch'ng TH, Szpara M, Enquist LW. Compartmented neuron cultures for directional infection by alpha herpesviruses. Curr Protoc Cell Biol. 2009 Jun;Chapter 26:Unit 26.4. PMCID: PMC2718536

Lyman MG, Kemp CD, Taylor MP, Enquist LW. Comparison of the pseudorabies virus Us9 with homologs from other veterinary and human alphaherpesviruses. J Virol. 2009 Jul;83(14):6978-86. Epub 2009 May 6. PMCID: PMC2704756

Enquist LW; Editors of the Journal of Virology. Virology in the 21st Century. J Virol. 2009 Jun;83(11):5296-308. Epub 2009 Mar 18. PMCID: PMC2681991

Braz JM, Enquist LW, Basbaum AI. Inputs to serotonergic neurons revealed by conditional viral transneuronal tracing. J Comp Neurol. 2009 May 10;514(2):145-60. PMCID: PMC2696271

Lyman M, Enquist LW. Herpesvirus interactions with the host cytoskeleton. J Virol. 2009 Mar;83(5):2058-66. Epub 2008 Oct 8. PMCID: PMC2643721

Curanovic D, Lyman MG, Bou-Abboud C, Card JP, Enquist LW. Repair of the UL21 locus in pseudorabies virus Bartha enhances the kinetics of retrograde, transneuronal infection in vitro and in vivo J Virol. 2009 Feb;83(3):1173-83. Epub 2008 Nov 19. PMCID: PMC2620901


Zaidi FN, Todd K, Enquist LW, Whitehead MC. Types of taste circuits synaptically linked to a few geniculate ganglion neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2008 Dec 20;511(6):753-72. PMCID: PMC2613300

Lyman MG, Curanovic D, Brideau AD, Enquist LW. Fusion of enhanced green fluorescent protein to the pseudorabies virus axonal sorting protein Us9 blocks anterograde spread of infection in mammalian neurons. J Virol. 2008 Oct;82(20):10308-11. Epub 2008 Aug 6. PMCID: PMC2566268

Liu WW, Goodhouse J, Jeon NL, Enquist LW. A microfluidic chamber for analysis of neuron-to-cell spread and axonal transport of an alpha-herpesvirus. PLoS One. 2008 Jun 18;3(6):e2382. PMCID: PMC2426917

Lyman MG, Curanovic D, Enquist LW. Targeting of pseudorabies virus structural proteins to axons requires association of the viral Us9 protein with lipid rifts. PLoS Pathog. 2008 May 16;4(5):e1000065. PMCID: PMC2361720

Ekstrand MI, Enquist LW, Pomeranz LE. The alpha-herpesviruses: molecular pathfinders in nervous system circuits. Trends Mol Med. 2008 Mar;14(3):134-40. Epub 2008 Feb 14. PMCID: PMC3397397


Lyman MG, Feierbach B, Curanovic D, Bisher M, Enquist LW. Pseudorabies virus us9 directs axonal sorting of viral capsids. J Virol. 2007 Oct;81(20):11363-71. Epub 2007 Aug 8. PMCID: PMC2045549

Favoreel HW, Enquist LW, Feierbach B. Actin and Rho GTPases in herpesvirus biology. Trends Microbiol. 2007 Sep;15(9):426-33. Epub 2007 Aug 30.

Ch'ng TH, Spear PG, Struyf F, Enquist LW. Glycoprotein D-independent spread of pseudorabies virus infection in cultured peripheral nervous system neurons in a compartmented system. J Virol. 2007 Oct;81(19):10742-57. Epub 2007 Jul 25. PMCID: PMC2045490

Viney TJ, Balint K, Hillier D, Siegert S, Boldogkoi Z, Enquist LW, Meister M, Cepko CL, Roska B. Local retinal circuits of melanopsin-containing ganglion cells identified by transsynaptic viral tracing. Curr Biol. 2007 Jun 5;17(11):981-8. Epub 2007 May 24.

Feierbach B, Bisher M, Goodhouse J, Enquist LW. In vitro analysis of trans-neuronal spread of an alpha-herpesvirus infection in peripheral nervous system neurons. J Virol. 2007 Jul;81(13):6846-57. Epub 2007 Apr 25. PMCID: PMC1933274


Reynolds AE, Enquist LW. Biological interactions between herpesviruses and cyclooxygenase enzymes. Rev Med Virol. 2006 Nov-Dec;16(6):393-403.

Feierbach B, Piccinotti S, Bisher M, Denk W, Enquist LW. Alpha-herpesvirus infection induces the formation of nuclear actin filaments. PLoS Pathog. 2006 Aug;2(8):e85. PMCID: PMC1550268

Brukman A, Enquist LW. Pseudorabies virus EP0 protein counteracts an interferon-induced antiviral state in a species-specific manner. J Virol. 2006 Nov;80(21):10871-3. Epub 2006 Aug 23. PMCID: PMC1641768

Olsen LM, Ch'ng TH, Card JP, Enquist LW. Role of Pseudorabies Virus Us3 Protein Kinase during Neuronal Infection. J Virol. 2006 Jul;80(13):6387-98. PMCID: PMC1488934

Brukman A, Enquist LW. Suppression of the Interferon-mediated Innate Immune Response by Pseudorabies virus. J Virol. 2006 Jul;80(13):6345-56. PMCID: PMC1488972

Ch'ng T, Enquist LW. An in vitro system to study trans-neuronal spread of pseudorabies virus infection. Vet Microbiol. 2006 Mar 31;113(3-4):193-7. Epub 2005 Dec 1.

Paulus C, Sollars PJ, Pickard GE, Enquist LW. Transcriptome signature of virulent and attenuated pseudorabies virus-infected rodent brain. J Virol. 2006 Feb;80(4):1773-86. PMCID: PMC1367157

Schwartz JA, Brittle EE, Reynolds AE, Enquist LW, Silverstein SJ. UL54-null pseudorabies virus is attenuated in mice but productively infects cells in culture. J Virol. 2006 Jan;80(2):769-84. PMCID: PMC1346835


Yoon H, Enquist LW, Dulac C. Olfactory inputs to hypothalamic neurons controlling reproduction and fertility. Cell. 2005 Nov 18;123(4):669-82.

Pomeranz LE, Reynolds AE, Hengartner CJ. Molecular biology of pseudorabies virus: impact on neurovirology and veterinary medicine. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2005 Sep;69(3):462-500. PMCID: PMC1197806

Wang F, Tang W, McGraw HM, Bennett J, Enquist LW, Friedman HM. Herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein E is required for axonal localization of capsids, tegument, and membrane glycoproteins. J Virol. 2005 Nov;79(21):13362-72. PMCID: PMC1262596

Ch'ng TH, Enquist LW. Neuron-to-cell spread of pseudorabies virus in a compartmented neuronal culture system. J Virol. 2005 Sep;79(17):10875-89. PMCID: PMC1193604

Ch'ng TH, Enquist LW. Efficient axonal localization of alphaherpesvirus structural proteins in cultured sympathetic neurons requires viral glycoprotein E. J Virol. 2005 Jul;79(14):8835-46. PMCID: PMC1168755

del Rio T, DeCoste CJ, Enquist LW. Actin is a component of the compensation mechanism in pseudorabies virus virions lacking the major tegument protein VP22. J Virol. 2005 Jul;79(13):8614-9. PMCID: PMC1143708

Song CK, Enquist LW, Bartness TJ. New developments in tracing neural circuits with herpesviruses. Virus Res. 2005 Aug;111(2):235-49.

del Rio T, Ch'ng TH, Flood EA, Gross SP, Enquist LW. Heterogeneity of a fluorescent tegument component in single pseudorabies virus virions and enveloped axonal assemblies. J Virol. 2005 Apr;79(7):3903-19. PMCID: PMC1061572

Geenen K, Favoreel HW, Olsen L, Enquist LW, Nauwynck HJ. The pseudorabies virus Us3 protein kinase possesses anti-apoptotic activity that protects cells from apoptosis during infection and after treatment with sorbitol or staurosporin. Virology. 2005 Jan 5;331(1):144-50.

Ch'ng TH, Flood, AE, Enquist, LW. Culturing primary and transformed neuronal cells for stydying pseudorabies infection. Methods Mol Biol. 2005;292:299-316.


Ray N, Bisher ME, Enquist LW. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 are required for production of infectious pseudorabies virus. J Virol. 2004 Dec;78(23):12964-74. PMCID: PMC525029

Brittle EE, Reynolds AE, Enquist LW. Two modes of pseudorabies virus neuroinvasion and lethality in mice. J Virol. 2004 Dec;78(23):12951-63. PMCID: PMC525033

Smith GA, Pomeranz L, Gross SP, Enquist LW. Local modulation of plus-end transport targets herpesvirus entry and egress in sensory axons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Nov 9;101(45):16034-9. Epub 2004 Oct 25. PMCID: PMC528757

Ray N, Enquist LW. Transcriptional response of a common permissive cell type to infection by two diverse alphaherpesviruses. J Virol. 2004 Apr;78(7):3489-501. PMCID: PMC371087

Smeraski CA, Sollars PJ, Ogilvie MD, Enquist LW, Pickard GE. Suprachiasmatic nucleus input to autonomic circuits identified by retrograde transsynaptic transport of pseudorabies virus from the eye. J Comp Neurol. 2004 Apr 5;471(3):298-313.

Klupp BG, Hengartner CJ, Mettenleiter TC, Enquist LW. Complete, annotated sequence of the pseudorabies virus genome. J Virol. 2004 Jan;78(1):424-40. PMCID: PMC303424


Enquist LW, Card JP. Recent advances in the use of neurotropic viruses for circuit analysis. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2003 Oct;13(5):603-6.

Clase AC, Lyman MG, del Rio T, Randall JA, Calton CM, Enquist LW, Banfield BW. The pseudorabies virus Us2 protein, a virion tegument component, is prenylated in infected cells. J Virol. 2003 Nov;77(22):12285-98. PMCID: PMC254261

Kerman IA, Enquist LW, Watson SJ, Yates BJ. Brainstem substrates of sympatho-motor circuitry identified using trans-synaptic tracing with pseudorabies virus recombinants. J Neurosci. 2003 Jun 1;23(11):4657-66.


Serrano F, Enquist LW, Card JP. Pseudorabies virus induced expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms. Physiol Behav. 2002 Dec;77(4-5):557-63.

Enquist LW. Exploiting circuit-specific spread of pseudorabies virus in the central nervous system: insights to pathogenesis and circuit tracers. J Infect Dis. 2002 Dec 1;186 Suppl 2:S209-14.

Fuchs W, Klupp BG, Granzow H, Hengartner C, Brack A, Mundt A, Enquist LW, Mettenleiter TC. Physical interaction between envelope glycoproteins E and M of pseudorabies virus and the major tegument protein UL49. J Virol. 2002 Aug;76(16):8208-17. PMCID: PMC155127

Tomishima MJ, Enquist LW. In vivo egress of an alphaherpesvirus from axons. J Virol. 2002 Aug;76(16):8310-7. PMCID: PMC155153

Enquist LW, Tomishima MJ, Gross S, Smith GA. Directional spread of an alpha-herpesvirus in the nervous system. Vet Microbiol. 2002 Apr 22;86(1-2):5-16.

Smith GA, Enquist LW. Break ins and break outs: viral interactions with the cytoskeleton of Mammalian cells. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2002;18:135-61. Epub 2002 Apr 2.

Favoreel HW, Van Minnebruggen G, Nauwynck HJ, Enquist LW, Pensaert MB. A tyrosine-based motif in the cytoplasmic tail of pseudorabies virus glycoprotein B is important for both antibody-induced internalization of viral glycoproteins and efficient cell-to-cell spread. J Virol. 2002 Jul;76(13):6845-51. PMCID: PMC136286

Carlen M, Cassidy RM, Brismar H, Smith GA, Enquist LW, Frisen J. Functional integration of adult-born neurons. Curr Biol. 2002 Apr 2;12(7):606-8.

Pickard GE, Smeraski CA, Tomlinson CC, Banfield BW, Kaufman J, Wilcox CL, Enquist LW, Sollars PJ. Intravitreal injection of the attenuated pseudorabies virus PRV Bartha results in infection of the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus only by retrograde transsynaptic transport via autonomic circuits. J Neurosci. 2002 Apr 1;22(7):2701-10.

Yu D, Smith GA, Enquist LW, Shenk T. Construction of a self-excisable bacterial artificial chromosome containing the human cytomegalovirus genome and mutagenesis of the diploid TRL/IRL13 gene. J Virol. 2002 Mar;76(5):2316-28. PMCID: PMC153828

del Rio T, Werner HC, Enquist LW. The pseudorabies virus VP22 homologue (UL49) is dispensable for virus growth in vitro and has no effect on virulence and neuronal spread in rodents. J Virol. 2002 Jan;76(2):774-82. PMCID: PMC136827


Demmin GL, Clase AC, Randall JA, Enquist LW, Banfield BW. Insertions in the gG gene of pseudorabies virus reduce expression of the upstream Us3 protein and inhibit cell-to-cell spread of virus infection. J Virol. 2001 Nov;75(22):10856-69. PMCID: PMC114666

Tomishima MJ, Enquist LW. A conserved alpha-herpesvirus protein necessary for axonal localization of viral membrane proteins. J Cell Biol. 2001 Aug 20;154(4):741-52. Epub 2001 Aug 13. PMCID: PMC2196449

Tomishima MJ, Smith GA, Enquist LW. Sorting and transport of alpha herpesviruses in axons. Traffic. 2001 Jul;2(7):429-36.

Card JP, Enquist LW. Transneuronal circuit analysis with pseudorabies viruses. Curr Protoc Neurosci. 2001 May;Chapter 1:Unit1.5.

DeFalco J, Tomishima M, Liu H, Zhao C, Cai X, Marth JD, Enquist L, Friedman JM. Virus-assisted mapping of neural inputs to a feeding center in the hypothalamus. Science. 2001 Mar 30;291(5513):2608-13.

Smith GA, Gross SP, Enquist LW. Herpesviruses use bidirectional fast-axonal transport to spread in sensory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Mar 13;98(6):3466-70. PMCID: PMC30676


Husak PJ, Kuo T, Enquist LW. Pseudorabies virus membrane proteins gI and gE facilitate anterograde spread of infection in projection-specific neurons in the rat. J Virol. 2000 Dec;74(23):10975-83. PMCID: PMC113177

Billig I, Foris JM, Enquist LW, Card JP, Yates BJ. Definition of neuronal circuitry controlling the activity of phrenic and abdominal motoneurons in the ferret using recombinant strains of pseudorabies virus. J Neurosci. 2000 Oct 1;20(19):7446-54.

Smith BN, Banfield BW, Smeraski CA, Wilcox CL, Dudek FE, Enquist LW, Pickard GE. Pseudorabies virus expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein: A tool for in vitro electrophysiological analysis of transsynaptically labeled neurons in identified central nervous system circuits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Aug 1;97(16):9264-9. PMCID: PMC16856

Brideau AD, Enquist LW, Tirabassi RS. The role of virion membrane protein endocytosis in the herpesvirus life cycle. J Clin Virol. 2000 Aug;17(2):69-82.

Brideau AD, Eldridge MG, Enquist LW. Directional transneuronal infection by pseudorabies virus is dependent on an acidic internalization motif in the Us9 cytoplasmic tail. J Virol. 2000 May;74(10):4549-61. PMCID: PMC111975

Smith GA, Enquist LW. A self-recombining bacterial artificial chromosome and its application for anlaysis of herpesvirus pathogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Apr 25;97(9):4873-8. PMCID: PMC18325

Brack AR, Klupp BG, Granzow H, Tirabassi R, Enquist LW, Mettenleiter TC. Role of the cytoplasmic tail of pseudorabies virus glycoprotein E in virion formation. J Virol. 2000 May;74(9):4004-16. PMCID: PMC111914

Tirabassi RS, Enquist LW. Role of the pseudorabies virus gI cytoplasmic domain in neuroinvasion, virulence, and posttranslational N-linked glycosylation. J Virol. 2000 Apr;74(8):3505-16. PMCID: PMC111858

Brideau AD, Card JP, Enquist LW. Role of pseudorabies virus Us9, a type II membrane protein, in infection of tissue culture cells and the rat nervous system. J Virol. 2000 Jan;74(2):834-45. PMCID: PMC111604


Flint J, Enquist LW, Krug R, Racaniello V, Skalka A. Principles of Virology: Molecular Biology, Pathogenesis and Control. ASM Press, Washington DC.

Kim JS, Enquist LW, Card JP. Circuit-specific coinfection of neurons in the rat central nervous system with two pseudorabies virus recombinants. J Virol. 1999 Nov;73(11):9521-31. PMCID: PMC112987

Smith GA, Enquist LW. Construction and transposon mutagenesis in Escherichia coli of a full-length infectious clone of pseudorabies virus, an alphaherpesvirus. J Virol. 1999 Aug;73(8):6405-14. PMCID: PMC112720

Sparks-Thissen RL, Enquist LW. Differential regulation of Dk and Kk major histocompatibility complex class I proteins on the cell surface after infection of murine cells by pseudorabies virus. J Virol. 1999 Jul;73(7):5748-56. PMCID: PMC112635

Brideau AD, del Rio T, Wolffe EJ, Enquist LW. Intracellular trafficking and localization of the pseudorabies virus Us9 type II envelope protein to host and viral membranes. J Virol. 1999 May;73(5):4372-84. PMCID: PMC104218

Yang M, Card JP, Tirabassi RS, Miselis RR, Enquist LW. Retrograde, transneuronal spread of pseudorabies virus in defined neuronal circuitry of the rat brain is facilitated by gE mutations that reduce virulence. J Virol. 1999 May;73(5):4350-9.

Tirabassi RS, Enquist LW. Mutation of the YXXL endocytosis motif in the cytoplasmic tail of pseudorabies virus gE. J Virol. 1999 Apr;73(4):2717-28. PMCID: PMC104028

Enquist LW. Life beyond eradication: veterinary viruses in basic science. Arch Virol Suppl. 1999;15:87-109.

Card JP, Enquist LW, Moore RY. Neuroinvasiveness of pseudorabies virus injected intracerebrally is dependent on viral concentration and terminal field density. J Comp Neurol. 1999 May 10;407(3):438-52.


Tirabassi RS, Townley RA, Eldridge MG, Enquist LW. Molecular mechanisms of neurotropic herpesvirus invasion and spread in the CNS. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1998 Oct;22(6):709-20.

Banfield BW, Yap GS, Knapp AC, Enquist LW. A chicken embryo eye model for the analysis of alphaherpesvirus neuronal spread and virulence. J Virol. 1998 Jun;72(6):4580-8. PMCID: PMC109971

Tirabassi RS, Enquist LW. Role of envelope protein gE endocytosis in the pseudorabies virus life cycle. J Virol. 1998 Jun;72(6):4571-9. PMCID: PMC109969

Brideau AD, Banfield BW, Enquist LW. The Us9 gene product of pseudorabies virus, an alphaherpesvirus, is a phosphorylated, tail-anchored type II membrane protein. J Virol. 1998 Jun;72(6):4560-70. PMCID: PMC109967

Enquist LW, Husak PJ, Banfield BW, Smith GA. Infection and spread of alphaherpesviruses in the nervous system. Adv Virus Res. 1998;51:237-347.